.HTACCESS Tricks and Solutions

10 .htaccess tricks that everyone should know.

With the help of the configuration file .htaccess, webmasters using NCSA-compatible web servers like Apache HTTP Server are able to set up directory-related rules. This allows webmasters to control which users have accesOK

 

10 .htaccess tricks that everyone should know.

With the help of the configuration file .htaccess, webmasters using NCSA-compatible web servers like Apache HTTP Server are able to set up directory-related rules. This allows webmasters to control which users have access to particular files. Setting up automatic redirects is also a typical example of one of the many .htaccess hacks.

Configuring servers with .htaccess hacks

.htaccess files allow authorized users to quickly and easily influence the configuration of a web server. HTTP authentication makes it possible to protect entire directories from unauthorized access. Error pages or automatic transfers can also be set up with this process. There is a wide range of different .htaccess tips and tricks, and we have compiled 10 of the most useful ones for you below:

 

1. Alternative error pages

Default web servers display standard HTML files or hard-coded messages if an error occurs when a page is accessed. Such error reports are neither particularly helpful nor aesthetically pleasing. .htaccess enables users to feed in pages or messages that refer users to alternative content. Here are the statements used to integrate custom error reports:

#individual error reports at local storage

locatioErrorDocument 404/directorypath/404.html

mixed

When error pages are located on an external URL or above the root directory of a website, it is possible to enter the entire URL into the .htaccess. The .htaccess file must be located in the root directory in the former case, however. 

#individual error report external storage location

ErrorDocument 404 www.domain.tld/directorypath/404.html

mixed

2. Forwarding

Forwarding and redirects comprise some of the main uses of .htaccess files. Requests can be forwarded to another domain or individual file of a website, or can be redirected within a given site. Once saved in the root directory, the following code ensures that requests headed for the original server domain are rerouted to the new one:

#single forwarding

Redirect / http://www.new-domain.tld/

mixed

Using the same method, individual files can also be transferred within a website in the case that a site’s name is changed:

#forwarding individual documents

Redirect /old-page.html new-page.html

mixed

3. Restricted areas

Those wishing to forego the need of composing extensive log-in scripts with PHP, yet still require a protected directory or file on their server can use .htaccess tricks to set up restricted areas. This type of password protection requires a second file called “.htpasswd”. Relevant passwords are stored here, and may only be entered into Unix systems when encrypted. To this end there are many different .htpasswd generators available online. Protected directories can be set up by executing the following commands:

# basic password protection with .htaccess

AuthType Basic

AuthName "restricted area"

AuthUserFile /<absolute path to password file>/.htpasswd

AuthPGAuthoritative Off

require user User1 User2 User3

mixed

The .htpasswd is then created with the users, including their encrypted passwords.

# .htpasswd file for usernames and passwords

User1:duCmo1zxkKx6Y

User2:mou3IYjSLpGWI

User3:HGKS9XzDXXAXQ

mixed

While the .htpasswd files should ideally be placed in the root directory, the .htaccess needs to be in the directory that is to be protected.

4. Increasing PHP memory limits

PHP applications are constrained by a defined memory limit. This limit determines the maximum amount of working memory that PHP scripts are allowed to cumulatively take up. The following command in the .htaccess increases this limit as necessary.

# PHP Memory Limit

php_value memory_limit 128M

mixed

The value “128M” stands for the limit of 128 megabytes in this case. Depending on memory and server requirements, other limits can also be established.

5. Changing the time zone of a server

If the server is running in the wrong time zone, the following entry allows the proper adaption to take place in the .htaccess:

# set time zone

SetEnv TZ US America/Chicago

mixed

6. Block IP addresses

It’s possible to prevent certain IP addresses or ranges from accessing websites. The right entry can suspend all IP addresses and grant access only to certain addresses. Doing this can make websites available exclusively for the employees of proprietary intranets, for example. The following command is a summary of some of the possible access restrictions:

# File for adjusting IP ranges

Order deny,allow

Deny from .aol.com

Deny from 192.168

Allow from 192.168.220.102

mixed

The entry “Order” establishes the interpretation sequence of the registered entries; these can be entered in any order. The ensuing entries communicate to the server that all users with .aol.com and numeric IP addresses in the range of 192.168 are barred from using the site. An exception is made with the IP 192.168.220.102.

7. Redirecting a web presence from HTTP to HTTPS

Those using SSL certificates for their domain have the possibility of redirecting the domain to the encrypted HTTPS with the following command:

# activate HTTPS

RewriteEngine On

RewriteCond %{Server_Port} !=443

RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://yourdomain.tld/$1 [R=301, L]

mixed

8. Activating file access through the browser

The following command enables the directory content to be shown in browsers and to be downloaded by users:

# show directory content

Options +Indexes

mixed

9. Prohibiting pictures from being hotlinked

Hotlinking allows a third person to link media to their website (especially pictures) that are saved on a different host. Doing this increases the data volume for the actual owner. The following command allows users to prohibit certain file types on their own website form being linked:

# prohibit hotlinking

RewriteEngine on

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://your-webhosting-domain/.*$ [NC] [OR]

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.your-webhosting-domain/.*$ [NC] [OR]

RewriteRule .*\.(gif|GIF|jpg|JPG|bmp|BMP|wav|mp3|wmv|avi|mpeg)$ - [F]

mixed

10. Specify charset information for documents

Without a proper charset, incorporating different accents or other characters is not possible. This can be particularly frustrating for those wishing to work in languages other than English. A .htaccess file is able to determine precisely which character coding should be employed for particular types of documents. This command makes it possible to encode all documents with UTF-8:

#specify character coding

AddDefaultCharset utf-8

mixed

Use the following commands in case only specific documents are to be coded:

#specify character coding for certain files

AddDefaultCharset utf-8 .css .htm .html .xhtml .php

mixed

.htaccess tricks: practical and easy to use

The aforementioned tips and tricks are only but a small preview of the wide range of functions that .htaccess files can be applied to when configuring servers. The server follows all the commands immediately, and no restart is necessary

  • htaccess, server htaccess
  • 0 Users Found This Useful
Was this answer helpful?

Related Articles

What is cPanel?

cPanel is a web based hosting control panel provided by many hosting providers to website owners...

Why do I need web hosting?

Why Do You Need Web Hosting? A lot of people tend to think that registering a domain name is...

How do I find or locate my cPanel login

To gain access to the cPanel you can either type in your web address followed by "/cpanel" and...

Back up using cPanel

Generating and downloading a full backup in cPanel To download the files of a website on cPanel...

Self Signed SSL certificate

What is Self Sign SSL Certificate?   Technically Self Sign Certificate means the...